Sentence Structure and Punctuation

Basic English Sentence Structures

S – V
S – V – O
S – V – IO – DO
Jack is sleeping.
Jack ate an apple.
Jack gave Jill a ring.
S – LV – Adj.
S – LV – Adv
S – LV – Noun
Jack is sick.
Jack is here.
Jack is a doctor.

Combinations: One verb or one subject (no comma)

S VS and S V

S V and V

S V O and O

S and S V O and O

Jack is drinking.Jack and Jill are drinking.

Jack is eating and drinking.

Jack drinks coffee and tea.

Jack and Jill drink tea and coffee.

 Two subjects, two verbs

Subordination (One idea is stronger.)

Jack drinks coffee although Jill drinks tea. (without a comma)

Although Jack drinks coffee, Jill drinks tea. (with a comma)

Coordination (equal ideas, with coordinator: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet)

Jack is drinking, and Jill is eating. (A comma [,] is needed here.)

Jack drinks coffee, but Jill drinks tea. (closest connection between ideas)

Closely related ideas (without coordinator)

Jack drinks coffee; Jill drinks tea. (A semi-colon [;] is used here.)

Jack drinks coffee; however, Jill drinks tea. (with a sentence connector)

Separate sentences (strongest break between ideas)

Jack drinks coffee. Jill drinks tea. (Use a period [.] to separate complete sentences.)

Jack drinks coffee. However, Jill drinks tea. (with a sentence connector)
Jack drinks coffee. Jill, however, drinks tea. (variation)

Do not use subordinators and coordinators to connect ideas in the same sentence:

Although Jack drinks coffee, but Jill drinks tea.

Jack drinks coffee, but Jill drinks tea.

Although Jack drinks coffee, Jill drinks tea.