Sentence Structure and Punctuation

Basic English Sentence Structures

S – V
S – V – O
S – V – IO – DO
Jack is sleeping.
Jack ate an apple.
Jack gave Jill a ring.
S – LV – Adj.
S – LV – Adv
S – LV – Noun
Jack is sick.
Jack is here.
Jack is a doctor.

Combinations: One verb or one subject (no comma)

S VS and S V

S V and V

S V O and O

S and S V O and O

Jack is drinking.Jack and Jill are drinking.

Jack is eating and drinking.

Jack drinks coffee and tea.

Jack and Jill drink tea and coffee.


Combinations:
 Two subjects, two verbs

Subordination (One idea is stronger.)

Jack drinks coffee although Jill drinks tea. (without a comma)

Although Jack drinks coffee, Jill drinks tea. (with a comma)

Coordination (equal ideas, with coordinator: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet)

Jack is drinking, and Jill is eating. (A comma [,] is needed here.)

Jack drinks coffee, but Jill drinks tea. (closest connection between ideas)

Closely related ideas (without coordinator)

Jack drinks coffee; Jill drinks tea. (A semi-colon [;] is used here.)

Jack drinks coffee; however, Jill drinks tea. (with a sentence connector)

Separate sentences (strongest break between ideas)

Jack drinks coffee. Jill drinks tea. (Use a period [.] to separate complete sentences.)

Jack drinks coffee. However, Jill drinks tea. (with a sentence connector)
Jack drinks coffee. Jill, however, drinks tea. (variation)

Note:
Do not use subordinators and coordinators to connect ideas in the same sentence:

Although Jack drinks coffee, but Jill drinks tea.

Jack drinks coffee, but Jill drinks tea.

Although Jack drinks coffee, Jill drinks tea.

(INCORRECT)
(Okay)

(Okay)