Absolutes

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Absolutes show a special “how” relationship between two sentences. The two sentences are combined in a way that subordinates one to the other. For example, Mary was...

Parenthetical Statements

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Statements in parentheses ( ) can be ignored when it comes to Subject-Verb agreement. My husband (the doctor) works at Community Hospital. My best friend (the...

Structure Words

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Structure Time (When?) Place (Where?) Prepositions Prep + Noun In 1959 On Thursday At 7:00 Before noon After hours During lunch By 5:00In the house On the table At the store Subordinators Although S V, S V S V although S V When I was young While you were here Once he arrived Before you went home After I finish my work As...

Participal Phrases

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In Time Clauses: While I was coming to class this morning, I witnessed an accident. While coming to class this morning, I witnessed an accident. Coming to...

Introductory Phrases

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Introductory phrases and clauses John invited Mary to a movie. Mary had seen the movie twice already. Mary was reluctant to accept John’s invitation. Because she...

Clauses and Phrases

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Clauses consist of a Subject and Verb and sometimes a subordinating conjunction. Roger went to Japan last summer. After he went to Japan, Roger went to Korea. Roger...

Noun Clauses

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Noun clause used as an object He said something. S V O He said that he was sick. Noun clause used as a subject Something is your business. S V Whatever you do is your...

Restrictive Clauses

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There are two types of relative clauses, restrictive and non-restrictive. Restrictive clauses specify which (of many) nouns the speaker is referring to. They do not require commas. For example, I have three brothers. My...

Reducing Adverbial Clauses

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Same time Time clauses with "while" and "when" can be reduced by deleting the subject and "be" verb. While I was eating dinner, I watched television. While eating...

Reduced Relative Clauses

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Sample usage from the article: Other regions (which were) surveyed… …part of a US-based programme (which is) known as… You may delete the relative pronoun (who, that, which) and the “be” verb...