To V or Not To V

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The word “to” is often confusing in English. It can be used as part of a modal expression, infinitive or as a preposition. Note the...

Infinitives

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Infinitives are defined as to + base form of the verb. They have several functions. 1. Used as subjects and subject complements. To know me is to love me. To live in Hawaii is...

Gerunds

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Gerunds are defined as the –ing form of a verb. They have several functions. 1. Used as subjects and complements Skiing is my favorite sport. Hiking can be very strenuous. Seeing is believing 2....

Go + Ving

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Some activities are commonly expressed in English by the phrase Go + Ving. See the list below. go camping go hiking go fishing go hunting go swimming go diving go surfing go snorkeling go...

Hope vs. Wish

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Wish is most commonly used in hypothetical (or imagined) situations: I wish that I had a dog. (I don't really have a dog, but if I...

Past Wishes

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Past wishes indicate things we imagine would have been different in the past, although we cannot change them. For past wishes, use the past perfect in the that clause. I...

Present Wishes

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Present wishes indicate something that is “contrary to fact.” That is, wishes are something that is untrue but desired. For example, I wish that I had...

Past Conditionals

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Past conditionals are used when talking about decisions or actions that you wish had been different. They indicate hypothetical situations from the past using “if”...

Present unreal conditionals

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Present unreal conditionals indicate a situation which is only imagined or in some-one's mind. For instance: I wish I had a pony. If I had a pony, I would...

Real Conditionals

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Conditional sentences express a choice and the possible consequences of that choice. There are three types of conditional sentences: Real, Unreal and Unreal Past. The first type is...