Hope vs. Wish

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Wish is most commonly used in hypothetical (or imagined) situations: I wish that I had a dog. (I don't really have a dog, but if I...

Past Wishes

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Past wishes indicate things we imagine would have been different in the past, although we cannot change them. For past wishes, use the past perfect in the that clause. I...

Present Wishes

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Present wishes indicate something that is “contrary to fact.” That is, wishes are something that is untrue but desired. For example, I wish that I had...

Past Conditionals

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Past conditionals are used when talking about decisions or actions that you wish had been different. They indicate hypothetical situations from the past using “if”...

Present unreal conditionals

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Present unreal conditionals indicate a situation which is only imagined or in some-one's mind. For instance: I wish I had a pony. If I had a pony, I would...

Real Conditionals

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Conditional sentences express a choice and the possible consequences of that choice. There are three types of conditional sentences: Real, Unreal and Unreal Past. The first type is...

Absolutes

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Absolutes show a special “how” relationship between two sentences. The two sentences are combined in a way that subordinates one to the other. For example, Mary was...

Parenthetical Statements

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Statements in parentheses ( ) can be ignored when it comes to Subject-Verb agreement. My husband (the doctor) works at Community Hospital. My best friend (the...

Structure Words

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Structure Time (When?) Place (Where?) Prepositions Prep + Noun In 1959 On Thursday At 7:00 Before noon After hours During lunch By 5:00In the house On the table At the store Subordinators Although S V, S V S V although S V When I was young While you were here Once he arrived Before you went home After I finish my work As...

Participal Phrases

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In Time Clauses: While I was coming to class this morning, I witnessed an accident. While coming to class this morning, I witnessed an accident. Coming to...