What is the English language?

English is a West Germanic language first spoken in early medieval England which eventually became the leading language of international discourse in today’s world. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, England.

Where does English language come from?

English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon migrants from what is now northwest Germany, southern Denmark and the Netherlands.

Who controls the English language?

Is there An Official Committee which regulates the English language, like the Académie française does for French? No. There never has been any group or body with this authority and it is not the purpose of the Oxford English Dictionary Department to act in this way.

Why English is Easy?

Despite these difficulties, English is actually the easiest language in the world to learn. … Unlike other languages, English has no cases, no gender, no word agreement, and arguably has a simple grammar system.

Who is the father of English?

Geoffrey Chaucer
Who is known as the father of the English language? Geoffrey Chaucer. He was born in London sometime between 1340 and 1344. He was an English author, poet, philosopher, bureaucrat (courtier), and diplomat.

Who decides proper English?

No one individual—nope, not even a grumpy content editor for the best U.S. web marketing company—has the exclusive right to determine what is or is not good grammar and usage. Nevertheless, chaos does not rule. Most people who have made a serious study of English will agree on the rules of grammar most of the time.

Who created English?

The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany.

What was the first English word?

There was no first word. At various times in the 5th century, the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and other northern Europeans show up in what is now England. They’re speaking various North Sea Germanic dialects that might or might not have been mutually understandable.

Why do Americans speak English?

The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas. The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrived in North America during the 17th century, followed by further migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries.

What is the first word on earth?

Also according to Wiki answers, the first word ever uttered was “Aa,” which meant “Hey!” This was said by an australopithecine in Ethiopia more than a million years ago.

Which English is the correct English?

Tensions can mount quickly on this topic if you speak with an Oxford man, as Oxford English is widely accepted as being the global reference for “Standard English.” But that doesn’t mean that the millions of people who are not speaking Oxford English are wrong!

Can C Ronaldo Speak English?

Ronaldo does speak English. Having spent six years living in England while playing for Manchester United, Ronaldo learned to speak English fluently and has maintained this ability up until the present day.

  1. Studies have shown that wild chimps in Guinea drink fermented palm sap, which contains about 3 percent alcohol by volume.

  2. The chevrotain is an animal that looks like a tiny deer with fangs.

  3. The heart of a shrimp is located in its head.

  4. Baby elephants suck their trunks for comfort.

  5. There was once a type of crocodile that could gallop.

  6. A grizzly bear’s bite is strong enough to crush a bowling ball.

  7. Animal behaviorists have concluded that cats don’t meow as a way to communicate with each other. It’s a method they use for getting attention from humans.

  8. Flamingos are naturally white—their diet of brine shrimp and algae turns them pink.

  9. Alberta, canada is the largest rat-free populated area in the world.

  10. In the uk, the british monarch legally owns all unmarked mute swans in open water.

  11. All clownfish are born male—some turn female to enable mating.

  12. Fruit bats don’t use echolocation—they have excellent senses of sight and smell.

  13. Lynx have large feet that enable them to run on very deep snow.

  14. In an aquatic traffic jam, alligators will give manatees the right of way.

  15. Cats can’t taste sugar. They don’t have sweet taste buds.

  16. The african penguin is also commonly referred to as the “jackass penguin” because it makes donkey-like braying sounds.

  17. Birds are immune to the heat of chili peppers.

  18. Bald eagles sound so silly that hollywood dubs their voices.

  19. According to time, the annual number of worldwide shark bites is 10 times less than the number of people bitten by other people in new york.

  20. Some cats are allergic to humans.

Turritopsis dohrnii is now officially known as the only immortal creature. The secret to eternal life, as it turns out, is not just living a really, really long time. It’s all about maturity, or rather, the lack of it. The immortal jellyfish (as it is better known popularly) propagate and then, faced with the normal career path of dying, they opt instead to revert to a sexually immature stage.

It turns out that once the adult form of the 4.5 mm-wide species Turritopsis dohrnii have reproduced, they don’t die but transform themselves back into their juvenile polyp state. Their tentacles retract, their bodies shrink, and they sink to the ocean floor and start the cycle all over again. Among laboratory samples, all the adult Turritopsis observed regularly undergo this change. And not just once: they can do it over and over again.

Thus, the only known way they can die is if they get consumed by another fish or if a disease strikes the jelly. However, there are still many mysteries surrounding the turritopsis dohrnii. While the process of reverting from its adult-phase to a polyp was observed several times, it hasn’t been observed yet in nature, only in laboratory environments.

There was a lot of confusion even inside the scientific community between the three types of turritopsis jellyfish: the dohrnii, the nutricula and the rubra. Simply put, the turritopsis genus can be found in many parts of the world and it it is not an easy task to differentiate between these tiny jellyfishes.

The nutricula was for a long time mistakenly the one referred to as the immortal jellyfish, while the jellyfish used in the lab observations was the turritopsis dohrnii, as they were collected from the Mediterranean, where the dohrnii is found.

The nutricula is found in the Caribbean and North America and the cycle reversal was not in fact observed on the nutricula. That doesn’t mean that the nutricula isn’t biologically immortal but that it has not yet been observed and proven that. When the study (Bavestrello et al. 1992;

Piraino et al. 1996, 2004) was published, the difference between the dohrnii and nutricula wasn’t clear yet and afterwards the media distributed the information that the nutricula would be the immortal one.

And finally the rubra is a turritopsis that can be found next to New Zealand waters. Its photos can be found all over the web describing the nutricula, but the rubra wasn’t even observed to be immortal. Its shape is similar to that of the nutricula, but it is bigger (it can reach 7 mm versus the 4.5 mm of the nutricula).

So chances are that if you ever hear about the nutricula being immortal, it is in fact the dohrnii but a picture of a rubra will be attached.



Let’s get to the fun facts about English language!

  1. English actually originates from what is now called north west Germany and the Netherlands.

  2. The phrase “long time no see” is believed to be a literal translation of a Native American or Chinese phrase as it is not grammatically correct.

  3. “Go!” is the shortest grammatically correct sentence in English. Find out some of the longest words in the English language here.

  4. The original name for butterfly was flutterby.

  5. About 4,000 words are added to the dictionary each year.

  6. The two most common words in English are I and you.

  7. 11% of the entire English language is just the letter E.

  8. The English language is said to be one of the happiest languages in the world – oh, and the word ‘happy’ is used 3 times more often than the word ‘sad’!

  9. 1/4 of the world’s population speaks at least some English.

  10. The US doesn’t have an official language.

  11. It is the only major language that doesn’t have any organization guiding it – as opposed to the French Académie française, the Spanish Real Academia Española and the German Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung. These organizations are responsible for controlling the evolution of their respective language in terms of usage, vocabulary, and grammar.

  12. The most common adjective used in English is ‘good’.

  13. The most commonly used noun is ‘time’.

  14. The word ‘set’ has the highest number of definitions.

  15. Month, orange, silver, and purple do not rhyme with any other word.

  16. The English language contains a lot of contronyms – words that can have contradictory meanings depending on context. You can read a list here!

  17. Over 80% of the information stored on computers worldwide is in English.

  18. Words that are used to fill in time when speaking, such as ‘like’ or ‘basically’, are called crutch words (and should best be avoided!)

  19. English is the official language of 67 countries.

  20. 90% of English text consists of just 1000 words.

  21. There are 24 different dialects of English in the US.

  22. The word ‘lol’ was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2011.

  23. What is known as British accent came to use in and around London around the time of the American Revolution.

  24. Shakespeare invented many words, such as birthplace, blushing, undress, torture and many more which you will find here!

  25. The word ‘Goodbye’ originally comes from an Old English phrase meaning ‘god be with you’.

  26. Etymologically, Great Britain means ‘great land of the tattooed’.

  27. There are seven ways to spell the sound ‘ee’ in English. This sentence contains all of them: ‘He believed Caesar could see people seizing the seas’.

  28. Many English words have changed their meaning over time – for example, ‘awful’ used to mean ‘inspiring wonder’ and was a short version of ‘full of awe’, whereas ‘nice’ used to mean ‘silly’

  29. The first English dictionary was written in 1755.

  30. The oldest English word that is still in use is ‘town’.

A page where I gather short, funny English video clips.

One way to use videos like these is to divide the class into small groups and show each group a different clip on a laptop or tablet. Then have individuals from each group meet with counterparts from other groups and explain their video to them. At the end of the activity, the groups can each see the other video. Feel free to add ideas for using them in the comments.

Don’t forget to subscribe our youtube channel

Online English Quiz

Instructions: Choose the correct answer.

Q1 – I ____ the train this morning.
Q2 – I ____ many things living so far from home.
Q3 – I ____ the call because I went to the shops.
Q4 – I ____ my way and took hours to find the house.
Q5 – I ____ a lot of lectures while I was ill.
Q6 – We ____ the turning and drove straight on for miles.
Q7 – She ____ the point of what they were saying.
Q8 – My dog got out of the garden and went _____ for hours.
Q9 – He ____ a lot of money gambling.
Q10 – My bag is ____- I left it there by the door.
Q11 – He ____ two matches because he was injured.

[bg_collapse view=”button-orange” color=”#4a4949″ expand_text=”Show Answer” collapse_text=”Hide Answer” ]


Q1 – I ____ the train this morning.
Q2 – I ____ many things living so far from home.
Q3 – I ____ the call because I went to the shops.
Q4 – I ____ my way and took hours to find the house.
Q5 – I ____ a lot of lectures while I was ill.
Q6 – We ____ the turning and drove straight on for miles.
Q7 – She ____ the point of what they were saying.
Q8 – My dog got out of the garden and went _____ for hours.
Q9 – He ____ a lot of money gambling.
Q10 – My bag is ____- I left it there by the door.
Q11 – He ____ two matches because he was injured.


An Indian man said he paid about $4,000 for a bespoke gold face mask to protect him from the coronavirus raging in the country.

The precious metal covering weighs 60 grams (two ounces) and took craftsmen eight days to make, said businessman Shankar Kurhade, from the western city of Pune.

“It is a thin mask and has tiny pores that is helping me to breathe,” Shankar told AFP.

When going out, the 49-year-old said he likes to adorn himself with gold jewellery weighing a kilogramme, including a bracelet, necklace and rings on each finger of his right hand.

Kurhade — whose company makes industrial sheds — said he got the idea for the gold face mask after seeing a media report about a man wearing one made from silver.

“People are asking me for selfies,” he said.

ALSO watch video

Noun clause is another type of complex sentence that you are likely to use when you do any form of writing or speaking, so you need to be aware of them for IELTS.

And remember that to score at a band 6 or above for the grammatical range and accuracy criteria in the IELTS writing marking, you must show that you are able to use complex sentences with at least some accuracy.

For a band 6 you may still make some errors with them, but errors are a lot less likely for someone scoring a band 7 or higher.

This of course does not mean you have to them in your writing! There are lots of other types of complex sentence, but it is likely you will use some.

For your speaking too, you need to be able to use a mix of complex structures with some flexibility.

What is a Noun Clause?

If you don’t know what a noun or a noun phrase is, you should check these out before you continue with this lesson.

This is a noun clause definition:

Here are 4 common types of noun clauses (NC):

  1. Subject NC
  2. Direct Object NC
  3. Object of Preposition NC
  4. Subject as Complement NC

It is a dependent clause which means it must also have an independent clause, but we will look at this further when we analyse each type.

Before we look at these in turn, let’s look at how this type of clause begins.

Starting the Clause

They start with a relative or adverb pronoun. These are the words that commonly commence such a clause:

where why if that when whether
who whom which what how how (adj)
– “ever” words
wherever whomever whenever whatever  
whichever whoever however however (adj)

Types of Clauses

Now we’ll look at the different types. Before we do this, take a look at these noun clause examples (the whole clause is in bold and the relative or adverb pronoun is in red). Each different type is shown:

Subject NC

How governments are fighting global warming is being scrutinised by the media.

Direct Object NC

Most people believe that obesity cannot be reduced just by reducing calorie intake.

Object of Preposition NC

He talked with whichever person arrived first.

Subject as complement NC

It is important that the individuals do everything they can to help educate their children.

1. Subject Noun Clauses

For these explanations, the subjects will be in green, the verbs in blue, and the objects in red.

In this type of sentence the NC (underlined) is the subject of the sentence:

What causes so many difficulties in the IELTS test is the writing section.

So looking at the whole sentence above, we have a subject, a verb and an object.

But remember that a NC is a ‘clause’, so it too must have a subject and a verb (and possibly an object):

What causes so many difficulties in the IELTS test is the writing section.

In the above example, the adverb pronoun (“what“) is the subject. It does not have to be as in this example, where “I” is the subject:

Whether I go or not is up to me.

Important: Note that the verb “is” is singular. A NC is counted as a singular subject, so it takes a singular verb.

2. Direct Object Noun Clauses

When the clause is the direct object, then it comes after the verb in the independent clause:

This history book describes how England became the first industrialised nation.

Again, remember that the NC has a subject and a verb (and possibly an object):

This history book describes how England became the first industrialised nation.

A common NC you will know from IELTS is the “that” clause, following verbs such as “think“, “believe” and “feel“, for example as in this Task 2 essay question:

A growing number of people feel that animals should not be exploited by people and that they should have the same rights as humans, while others argue that humans must employ animals to satisfy their various needs, including uses for food and research.

Discuss both views and give your opinion.

And you may then give your opinion:

Personally, I do not believe that it is necessary to exploit animals for our own satisfaction.

Note that if you are speaking it is fine to leave “that” out of the sentence (this is then a reduced noun clause).

          I believe students should not have to wear a uniform.

But for formal writing such as you do in IELTS you should keep the “that” in the sentence.

          I believe that students should not have to wear a uniform.

3. Object of the Preposition Noun Clauses

In this case, the NC comes after a preposition:

My Aunt is very chatty. She speaks to whoever will listen!

And here it is with the subject and verb of the NC highlighted:

My Aunt is very chatty. She speaks to whoever will listen

4. Subject as Complement Noun Clauses

These type of sentences have the following structure:

It + be + adjective + (NOUN CLAUSE: that + S + V)

It is important that the government tackles obesity.

It is essential that children have enough leisure time.

Some exercises will be added shortly so you can practice with these types of clauses, so keep an eye on the page. 

In this lesson we will look in more detail at adverbial clauses.These clauses are a type of complex sentence, so it is essential that you are able to use them in your writing and speaking if you want to achieve a good band score. The examiner will be monitoring your speaking and writing closely to assess how well you know them. In the table below you can see the most common types of adverbs used to make adverbial clauses.You can also see what they are used for and some example sentences.

Types of Adverbial Clause

Time Clauses

In reference to a period of time or another event

He arrived before I did.

After I have finished studying, I intend to work abroad.

As the climate gets hotter, sea levels will rise.

I will keep learning English for as long as it is necessary.

While I am studying, I usually listen to the radio.

Rates of obesity increase when too much junk food is eaten.

Since I started going to fitness, I have lost 5 kilos.

I will keep learning English until I am upper intermediate.

Conditional Clauses

Expressing a hypothesis or condition, real or imagined

If we clone humans, it may have terrible consequences.

What would you buy if you won the lottery?

Our food will not be safe unless GM crops are banned.

Reason Clauses

To explain why

My English is not improving because I am not studying enough.

Since the govenment cut spending, poverty has increased.

Pollution is increasing as there are too many cars.

Purpose Clauses

To show the purpose of doing something

I am studying IELTS in order to attend university abroad.

He went to the gym so that he could lose weight.

Concession Clauses

To show contrast between two statements, or surprise.

Although e-readers are popular, most people still prefer books.

The Minister wants to incease taxes though his party disagrees.

Even though I studied every day, I didn’t get the score I needed (surprising)

Internet usage increased, while phone usage decreased.*

Whereas you have a lot of time to study, I do not.*


To talk about location of position

Wherever he goes, I will go.

I am not sure where I put my pen.

Rules for Adverbial Clauses

Remember that adverbial clauses are made up of two clauses – an independent clause and a dependent clause (look at these lessons on sentence clauses and complex sentences again if you are not sure what clauses are).

1) Switching the Clauses

The first thing to note is that the independent and dependent clauses can be switched around:

After I have finished studyingI intend to work abroad.
(Dependent Clause + Independent Clause)

I intend to work abroad after I have finished studying.
(Independent Clause + Dependent Clause)

In all of the sentences in the table above, the clauses can be switched around.

2) Commas

Note though that if you switch them around and put the dependent clause first, a comma must come at the end of the dependent clause:

After I have finished studyingI intend to work abroad.

I intend to work abroad after I have finished studying.
(No Comma)

This might seem like a minor point but it is quite important in your writing. Complex sentences can sometimes get confusing if commas are missing as it can become unclear where one clause ends and the other begins.

If any of your sentences are confusing, this will definitely reduce your score.

*’While’ and ‘Whereas’ are execptions to this rule because they do have commas even when they appear in the middle of the sentence.

3) Meanings

Even though certain adverbs have been grouped together in the adverbial clauses table, this does not mean that they are all synomyms for each other.

Some you can interchange with each other without changing the meaning. For instance, ‘since’, ‘as’ and ‘because’ all have the same meaning and you can choose which one you want to use. But some you cannot.

For example, look at these conditional adverbs:

I will go if you go.

I will go unless you go.

The word ‘unless’ does not work in the second sentence. It has to be changed:

I won’t go unless you go.

Now it has the same meaning.

Similarly, ‘although’, ‘even though’, and ‘though’ are all synonyms of each other and can be interchanged, but ‘while’ and ‘whereas’ canot always be swapped with them.

So you need to practice each individual word and check how it is used.

A Common Mistake

A common mistake with adverbial clauses (and other complex sentences) is to write fragments.

A fragment is an incomplete sentence:

My English is not improving. Because I am not studying enough.

A dependent clause (the second one in this case) cannot be a sentence on its own. By placing a full-stop after “improving”, this has turned the second clause into a sentence fragment.

A dependent clause must have an independent clause attached to it:

My English is not improving because I am not studying enough.

When you check your work, you should check your complex sentences and check that you have not written any fragments.

Examples in Context

Look at this sample essay. The adverbial clauses are coloured, with the independent clauses in green (and italics) and the dependent clauses in red (and underlined). The adverbs are shaded in yellow.

Some people believe the aim of university education is to help graduates get better jobs. Others believe there are much wider benefits of university education for both individuals and society.

Discuss both views and give your opinion

Relative clauses are a type of complex sentence.

It essential that you know how to write complex sentences if you want to do well in the IELTS writing test.

Here are some examples used in an IELTS task 1:

Here are some examples from task 2 essays:

Relative clauses can refer to:

People = who / that

Things = which / that

Places = where

Below are some essential rules about these types of clauses that you must know.


8 things you must know about relative clauses:

1) Relative clauses modify nouns, and they must come after the noun they are modifying:

  noun        relative clause
The carwhich is my father’s, is in the garage.

                             noun      relative clause
The car is in the garagewhich is locked.

In the first sentence, the relative clause is referring to “the car”, so it comes after that noun. In the second sentence it is referring to “the garage”.


2) There must be an independent and dependent clause:

Ind Clause         Dep Clause        Ind Clause
The car, / which is my father’s, / is in the garage.


3) As there are two clauses, there must be a subject and verb in each:

     S             S    V                     V
The car, / which is my father’s, / is in the garage.

This is because a relative clause is two simple sentences joined together. In other words:

    S       V
The car is in the garage.
S      V
The car is my fathers.


4) If you miss part of one of the clauses out, or one of the subjects or verbs, you will create a fragment (an incomplete sentence):

S           S    V
The car / which is my father’s.

This is incorrect as there must be a full dependent and independent clause.


5) The verb in the relative clause must agree (i.e. singular subject takes singular verb) with the noun it is modifying:

Subj (sing)       verb (sing)  
The car,which is my father’s, / is in the garage.


6) If the information is ‘extra’ information, there are commas:

The car, which is my father’s, is in the garage.

The relative clause is not identifying the noun, it is just extra information about who owns it.


7) If the information is ‘essential’, there are no commas:

The car which is in front of the house is mine.

This is identifying which car, so it is essential.  There are probably other cars, so without the relative clause we will not know which car is being talked about.

In other words, if you said “the car is mine“, this would not help us. Which car?


8) With ‘essential’ relative clauses, ‘that’ can replace ‘who’ or ‘which’:

The car that is in front of the house is mine.

The police have not found the person that stole my car.

Read also: